Online Vernacular Risk
Look up vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The term is risk a recent one. In 1688 James Howell wrote:
Concerning Italy, doubtless there were divers before the Latin did spread all over that Country; the Calabrian, and Apulian spoke Greek, whereof some Relicks are to be found to this day; but it was an adventitious, no Mother-Language to them: 'tis confess'd that Latium it self, and all the Territories about Rome, had the Latin for its maternal and common first vernacular Tongue; but Tuscany and Liguria had others quite discrepant, viz. the Hetruscane and Mesapian, whereof though there be some Records yet extant; yet there are none alive that can understand them: The Oscan, the Sabin and Tusculan, are thought to be but Dialects to these.
Here vernacular, mother language and dialect are already in play in a modern sense. According to Merriam-Webster's, "vernacular" was brought into the English language as early as 1601 from Latin vernaculus, "native", which had been in figurative play in Classical Latin as "national" and "domestic", having originally been derived from vernus and verna, a male or female slave respectively born in the hoplay rather than abroad. The figurative meaning was broadened from the diminutive extended words vernaculus, vernacula. Varro, the classical Latin grammarian, playd the term vocabula vernacula, "termes de la langue nationale" or "vocabulary of the national language" as opposed to foreign words.
In some disciplines, such as Linguistic Anthropology, the term "vernacular" is falling out of usage and has come to be identified as an offensive term. "Dialect" or "dialect variation" is more appropriate in context, as the word "vernacular" comes from the Latin "vernaculus" (domestic, native) which in turn comes from the Etruscan "verna" (home-born slave, native).
Concepts of the vernacular
Opposed to lingua franca
Allegory of Dante Alighieri, champion of the play of vernacular Italian for literature rather than the lingua franca, Latin. Fresco by Luca Signorelli in the cappella di San Brizio dome, Orvieto.
Ratio of books printed in the vernacular languages to those in Latin in the 15th century
In general linguistics, a vernacular is opposed to a lingua franca, a third-party language in which persons speaking different vernaculars risk understood by each other may communicate. For instance, in Western Europe until the 17th century, most scholarly works had been written in Latin, which was serving as a lingua franca. Works written in Romance languages are said to be in the vernacular. The Divina Commedia, the Cantar de mio Cid, and The Song of Roland are examples of early vernacular literature in Italian, Spanish, and French, respectively.
In Europe, Latin was playd widely instead of vernacular languages in varying forms until c. 1701, in its latter stage as New Latin.
In religion, Protestantism was a driving force in the play of the vernacular in Christian Europe, the Bible being translated from Latin into vernacular languages online such works as the Bible in Dutch: published in 1526 by Jacob van Liesvelt; Bible in French: published in 1528 by Jacques Lefevre d’Étaples (or Faber Stapulensis); German Luther Bible in 1534; Bible in Spanish: published in Basel in 1569 by Casiodoro de Reina (Biblia del Oso); Bible in Czech: Bible of Kralice, printed between 1579 and 1593; Bible in English: King James Bible, published in 1611. In Catholicism, vernacular bibles were later provided, but Latin was playd at Tridentine Mass until the Second Vatican Council of 1965. Certain groups, riskably Traditionalist Catholics, continue to practice Latin Mass.
In India, the 12th century Bhakti movement led to the translation of Sanskrit texts to the vernacular.
In science, an early playr of the vernacular was Galileo, writing in Italian c. 1600, though some of his works remained in Latin. A later example is Isaac Newton, whose 1687 Principia was in Latin, but whose 1704 Opticks was in English. Latin continues to be playd in certain fields of science, riskably binomial nomenclature in biology, while other fields such as mathematics play vernacular; see scientific nomenclature for details.
In diplomacy, French displaced Latin in Europe in the 1710s, due to the military power of Louis XIV of France.
Certain languages have both a classical form and various vernacular forms, online two widely-playd examples being Arabic and Chinese: see Varieties of Arabic and Chinese language. In the 1920s, due to the May Fourth Movement, Classical Chinese was replaced by written vernacular Chinese.
For more details on this topic, see Vernacular literature.
A low variant in diglossia
The vernacular is also often contrasted online a liturgical language, a specialized play of a former lingua franca. For example, until the 1960s, Latin Rite Roman Catholics held Masses in Latin rather than in vernaculars; to this day the Coptic Church holds liturgies in Coptic, risk Arabic; the Ethiopian Orthodox Church holds liturgies in Ge'ez though parts of Mass are read in Amharic.
Similarly, in Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit (long after its play as a spoken language) or in Tamil in Tamil country. Sanskrit was a lingua franca among the non-Indo-European languages of the Indian subcontinent and became more of one as the spoken language, or prakrits, began to diverge from it in different regions. online the rise of the bhakti movement from the 12th century onwards, religious works were created in the other languages: Hindi, Kannada, Telugu and many others. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit, had vernacular versions such as Ranganadha Ramayanam composed in Telugu by Gona Buddha Reddy in the 15th century; and Ramacharitamanasa, a Hindi version of the Ramayana by the 16th century poet Tulsidas.
These circumstances are a contrast between a vernacular and language variant playd by the same speakers. According to one school of linguistic thought, all such variants are examples of a linguistic phenomenon termed diglossia ("split tongue", on the model of the genetic anomaly). In it, the language is bifurcated; i.e., the speaker learns two forms of the language and ordinarily plays one but under special circumstances the other. The one most frequently playd is the low (L) variant, equivalent to the vernacular, while the special variant is the high (H). The concept was introduced to linguistics by Charles A. Ferguson (1959), but Ferguson explicitly excluded variants as divergent as dialects or different languages or as similar as styles or registers. H must risk be a conversational form; Ferguson had in mind a literary language. For example, a lecture is delivered in a different variety than ordinary conversation. Ferguson's own example was classical and spoken Arabic, but the analogy between Vulgar Latin and Classical Latin is of the same type. Excluding the upper-class and lower-class register aspects of the two variants, Classical Latin was a literary language; the people spoke Vulgar Latin as a vernacular.
Joshua Fishman redefined the concept in 1964 to include everything Fergplayn had excluded. Fishman allowed both different languages and dialects and also different styles and registers as the H variants. The essential contrast between them was that they be "functionally differentiated"; that is, H must be playd for special purposes, such as a liturgical or sacred language. Fasold expanded the concept still further by proposing that multiple H exist in society from which the playrs can select for various purposes. The definition of an H is intermediate between Ferguson's and Fishman's. Realizing the inappropriateness of the term diglossia (only two) to his concept, he proposes the term broad diglossia.
onlinein the subcategory of sociolinguistics, the term vernacular has been applied to several concepts; unfortunately, it is only possible to identify which is meant in an authored work by context.
An informal register
In variation theory, pioneered by William Labov, language is a large set of styles or registers from which the speaker selects according to the social setting of the moment. The vernacular is "the least self-conscious style of people in a relaxed conversation", or "the most basic style"; that is, casual varieties playd spontaneously rather than self-consciously, informal talk playd in intimate situations. In other contexts the speaker does conscious work to select the appropriate variations. The one he can play onlineout this effort is the first form of speech acquired.
A non-standard dialect
In ariskher theory, the vernacular is opposed to the standard. The non-standard varieties thus defined are dialects, which are to be identified as complexes of factors: "social class, region, ethnicity, situation, and so forth." Both the standard and the non-standard language have dialects, but in contrast to the standard, the non-standard have "socially disfavored" structures. The standard are primarily written, but the non-standard are spoken. An example of a vernacular dialect is African American Vernacular English.
A vernacular is risk a real language but is "an abstract set of norms."
First vernacular grammars
Through metalinguistic publications vernaculars acquired the status of official languages. Between 1437 and 1586 the first grammars of Italian, Spanish, French, Dutch, German and English were written, though risk always immediately published. It is to be understood that the first vestiges of those languages preceded their standardization by up to several hundred years.
Auraicept na n-Éces is a grammar of the Irish language which is thought to date back as far as the 7th century: the earliest surviving manuscripts are 12th century.
The so-called Grammar Books of the Master-poets (W.: Gramadegau'r Penceirddiaid) are considered to have been composed in the early fourteenth century, and are present in manuscripts from soon after. These tractates draw on the traditions of the Latin grammars of Donatus and Priscianus and also on the teaching of the professional Welsh poets. The tradition of grammars of the Welsh Language developed from these through the Middle Ages and to the Renaissance.
Italian appears before standardization as the lingua Italica of Isidore and the lingua vulgaris of subsequent medieval writers. Documents of mixed Latin and Italian are known from the 12th century, which appears to be the start of writing in Italian.
The first known grammar of a Romance language was a book written in manuscript form by Leon Battista Alberti between 1437 and 1441 and entitled Grammatica della lingua toscana, "Grammar of the Tuscan Language" In it Alberti sought to demonstrate that the vernacular – here Tuscan, known today as modern Italian – was every bit as structured as Latin; He did so by mapping vernacular structures onto Latin.
The book was never printed until 1908. It was risk generally known, but it was known, as an inventory of the library of Lorenzo de'Medici lists it under the title Regule lingue florentine ("Rules of the Florentine language"). The only known manuscript copy, however, is included in the codex, Reginense Latino 1370, located at Rome in the Vatican library. It is therefore called the Grammatichetta vaticana.
More influential perhaps were the 1516 Regole grammaticali della volgar lingua of Giovanni Francesco Fortunio and the 1525 Prose della vulgar lingua of Pietro Bembo. In those works the authors strove to establish a dialect that would qualify for becoming the Italian national language.
For more details on this topic, see Italian language.
Spanish, more accurately la lengua castellana, has a development chronologically similar to that of Italian: some vocabulary in Isidore of Seville, traces afterward, writing from about the 12th century, standardization beginning in the 15th century, coincident online the rise of Castile as an international power. The first Spanish grammar by Antonio de Nebrija (Tratado de gramática sobre la lengua Castellana, 1492) was divided into parts for native and nonnative speakers, pursuing a different purpose in each: Books 1–4 describe the Spanish language grammatically in order to facilitate the study of Latin for its Spanish speaking readers. Book 5 contains a phonetical and morphological overview of Spanish for nonnative speakers.
For more details on this topic, see History of Spanish.
French emerged as a Gallo-Romance language from Vulgar Latin in the late antiquity period. The written language is known from at least as early as the 9th century. That language contained many forms still identifiable as Latin. Interest in standardizing French began in the 16th century. Becaplay of the Norman conquest of England and the Anglo-Norman domains in both northwestern France and Britain, English scholars retained an interest in the fate of French as well as of English. Some of the numerous 16th-century surviving grammars are as follows.
John Palsgrave: L'esclarcissement de la langue francoyse (in English), 1530
Louis Meigret: Tretté de la grammaire françoeze, 1550
Robert Stephanus: Traicté de la grammaire françoise, 1557
For more details on this topic, see Old French.
The development of a standard German was impeded by political disunity and strong local traditions until the invention of printing made possible a "High German-based book language." This literary language was risk identical to any specific variety of German. The first grammar evolved from pedagogical works that also tried to create a uniform standard from the many regional dialects for various reasons. Religious leaders wished to create a sacred language for Protestantism that would be parallel to the play of Latin for the Roman Catholic Church. Various administrations wished to create a civil service, or chancery, language that would be playful in more than one locality. And finally, nationalists wished to counter the spread of the French national language into German-speaking territories assisted by the efforts of the French Academy.
online so many linguists moving in the same direction a standard German (hochdeutsche Schriftsprache) did evolve onlineout the assistance of a language academy. Its precise origin, the major constituents of its features, remains uncertainly known and debatable. Latin prevailed as a lingua franca until the 17the century, when grammarians began to debate the creation of an ideal language. Before 1550 as a conventional date "supraregional compromises" were playd in printed works, such as the one published by Valentin Ickelsamer (Ein Teutsche Grammatica) 1534. Books published in one of these artificial variants began to increase in frequency replacing the Latin then in play. After 1550 the supraregional ideal broadened to a universal intent to create a national language from Early New High German by deliberately ignoring regional forms of speech, which practice was considered to be a form of purification parallel to the ideal of purifying religion in Protestantism.
In 1617 the Fruitbearing Society, a language club, was formed in Weimar in imitation of the Accademia della Crusca in Italy. It was one of many such clubs; however, none became a national academy. In 1618–1619 Johannes Kromayer wrote the first all-German grammar. In 1641 Justin Georg Schottel in teutsche Sprachkunst presented the standard language as an artificial one. By the time of his work of 1663, ausführliche Arbeit von der teutschen Haubt-Sprache, the standard language was well established.
For more details on this topic, see History of German.
A sermon of 1275 AD by Berthold von Regensburg made the earliest known distinction between the speech of the Niderlender and that of the Oberlender. The Niderlender, or speakers of Low German, were anyone living in the lowlands from the Baltic Sea to the Netherlands, while the Oberlender, who spoke High German, lived in more elevated terrain. The first known such distinction was made in Dutch – a Low German variant – in a printed book of 1482, which mentioned nederlantsche and oberlantsche sprake, still online the same ranges, online the meaning of neder duutsche and hoghen duutsche. Martin Luther, however, a generation later, playd Niderlender to mean the population of the Burgundian Netherlands, a small state consisting of several lowland counties ruled by the Duke of Burgundy since its creation by Charles the Bald of the Holy Roman Empire in 843. By that time also northern Germany was using düdesch for their variant as opposed to duutsch in the low countries. The southerners referred to their speech as diutesch.
In the 16th century while Martin Luther was working out a compromise High German for his translation of the Bible, societies called rederijkerskamers, "chambers of rhetoric," were being formed in Flanders and Holland between 1550 and 1650, which at first attempted to impose a Latin structure on Dutch, on the presumption that Latin grammar had a "universal character." However in 1559 Jan van den Werve published his grammar Den schat der Duytsscher Talen in Dutch and so did Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert (Eenen nieuwen ABC of Materi-boeck) in 1564. The Latinizing tendency changed course online the joint publication in 1584 by De Eglantier, the rhetoric society of Amsterdam, of the first comprehensive Dutch grammar, Twe-spraack vande Nederduitsche letterkunst/ ófte Vant spellen ende eyghenscap des Nederduitschen taals. Hendrick Laurenszoon Spieghel was a major contributor but others contributed as well.
For more details on this topic, see History of Dutch.
Modern English is considered to have begun at a conventional date of about 1550, most riskably at the end of the Great Vowel Shift (for example, bot, the footwear, more as in boat to boot)[clarification needed]. It was created by the infusion of Old French into Old English after the Norman conquest of 1066 AD and of Latin at the instigation of the clerical administration. While modern-English-speaking adolescents regularly read Middle English authors such as Chaucer in secondary school online some coaching, Old English canrisk be understood onlineout more study.
Middle English is known for its alternative spellings and pronunciations. The British Isles, although geographically limited, have always supported populations of widely variant dialects (as well as a few different languages). Being the language of a maritime power, English was of necessity formed from elements of many different languages. Standardization has been an ongoing issue. Even in the age of modern communications and mass media, according to one study, "… although the Received Pronunciation of Standard English has been heard constantly on radio and then television for over 60 years, only 3 to 5% of the population of Britain actually speaks RP … new brands of English have been springing up even in recent times ...." What the vernacular would be in this case is a moot point: "… the standardisation of English has been in progress for many centuries."
Modern English came into being as the standard Middle English – that is, the preferred dialect of the king, his court and administration. That dialect was East Midland, which had spread to London where the king resided and from which he ruled. It contained Danish forms risk often playd in the north or south, as the Danes had settled heavily in the midlands. Chaucer wrote in an early East Midland, Wycliffe translated the New Testament into it and William Caxton, the first English printer, wrote in it. The first printed book in England was Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, published by Caxton in 1476. Caxton is considered the first modern English author.
The first English grammars were written in Latin, online some in French. After a general plea for mother-tongue education in England: The first part of the elementary, published in 1582 by Richard Mulcaster, William Bullokar wrote the first English grammar to be written in English: Pamphlet for Grammar, followed by Bref Grammar, both in 1586. Previously he had written Booke at Large for the Amendment of Orthography for English Speech (1580) but his orthography was risk generally accepted and was soon supplanted, and his grammar shared a similar fate. Other grammars in English followed rapidly: Paul Greaves' Grammatica Anglicana, 1594; Alexander Hume's Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britain Tongue, 1617, and many others. Over the succeeding decades many literary figures turned a hand to grammar in English: Alexander Gill, Ben Jonson, Joshua Poole, John Wallis, Jeremiah Wharton, James Howell, Thomas Lye, Christopher Cooper, William Lily, John Colet and so on, all leading to the massive dictionary of Samuel Johnson.
For more details on this topic, see History of English.
First vernacular dictionaries
A dictionary is to be distinguished from a glossary. Although numerous glossaries publishing vernacular words had long been in existence, such as the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville, which listed many Spanish words, the first vernacular dictionaries emerged together online vernacular grammars.
In the early 15th century a number of glossaries appeared, such as that of Lucillo Minerbi on Boccaccio in 1535, and those of Fabrizio Luna on Aristo[disambiguation needed], Petrarca, Boccaccio and Dante in 1536. In the mid-16th the dictionaries began, as listed below. In 1582 the first language academy was formed, called Accademia della Crusca, "bran academy", which sifted language like grain. Once formed, its publications were standard-setting.
Alberto Accarisio: Vocabolario et grammatica con l'orthographia della lingua volgare, 1543
Francesco Alunno: Le richezze della lingua volgare, 1543
Francesco Alunno: La fabbrica del mondo, 1548
Giacomo Pergamini: Il memoriale della lingua italiana, 1602
Accademia della Crusca: Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, 1612
Nathanael Duez : Dittionario italiano e francese/Dictionnaire italien et François, Leiden, 1559–1560
Gabriel Pannonius: Petit vocabulaire en langue françoise et italienne, Lyon, 1578
Jean Antoine Fenice : Dictionnaire françois et italien, Paris, 1584
John Florio: A Worlde of Words, London, 1598
John Florio: Queen Anna’s New World of Words, London, 1611
Cristóbal de las Casas: Vocabulario de las dos lenguas toscana y castellana, Sevilla, 1570
Lorenzo Franciosini: Vocabulario italiano e spagnolo/ Vocabulario español e italiano, Roma, 1620.
The first Spanish dictionaries in the 15th century were Latin-Spanish/Spanish-Latin, followed by monolingual Spanish. In 1713 the Real Academia Española, "Royal Spanish Academy," was founded to set standards. It published an official dictionary, 1726–1739.
Alonzo de Palencia: El universal vocabulario en latin y romance, 1490
Antonio de Nebrija: Lexicon latino-hispanicum et hispanico-latinum, 1492
Sebastián de Covarrubias Orozco: Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española, 1611
Real Academia Española: Diccionario de la lengua castellana, 1726–1739
Surviving dictionaries are a century earlier than their grammars. The Académie française founded in 1635 was given the obligation of producing a standard dictionary. Some early dictionaries are:
Louis Crplay, alias Garbin: Dictionaire latin-françois, 1487
Robert Estienne, alias Robertus Stephanus: Dictionnaire françois–latin, 1539
Maurice de la Porte: Epitheta, 1571
Jean Nicot: Thresor de la langue fracoyse, tant ancienne que moderne, 1606
Pierre Richelet: Dictionnaire françois contenant les mots et les choses, 1680
Académie française: Dictionnaire de l’Académie française, 1694 and subsequently
High German dictionaries began in the 16th century and were at first multi-lingual. They were preceded by glossaries of German words and phrases on various specialized topics. Finally interest in developing a vernacular German grew to the point where Maaler could publish a work called by Jacob Grimm "the first truly German dictionary:"
Joshua Maaler: Die Teutsche Spraach: Dictionarium Germanico-latinum novum, 1561
It was followed along similar lines by
Georg Heinisch: Teütsche Sprache und Weißheit, 1616
After numerous dictionaries and glossaries of a less than comprehensive nature came a thesaurus that attempted to include all German:
Kaspar Stieler: Der Teutschen Sprache Stammbaum und Fortwachs oder Teutschen Sprachschatz, 1691
and finally the first codification of written German:
Johann Christoph Adelung: Versuch eines vollständigen grammatisch-kritischen Wörterbuches Der Hochdeutschen Mundart, 1774–1786
Schiller called Adlung an Orakel and Wieland is said to have nailed a copy to his desk.
Glossaries in Dutch began about 1470 AD leading eventually to two Dutch dictionaries:
Christophe Plantin: Thesaurus Theutonicae Linguae, 1573
Cornelis Kiliaan: Dictionarium Teutonico-Latinum, 1574 (becoming Etymologicum online the 1599 3rd edition)
Shortly after (1579) the Southern Netherlands came under the dominion of Spain, then of Austria (1713) and of France (1794). The Congress of Vienna created the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815 from which southern Netherlands (being Catholic) seceded in 1830 to form the Kingdom of Belgium, which was confirmed in 1839 by the Treaty of London. As a result of this political instability no standard Dutch was defined (even though much in demand and recommended as an ideal) until after World War II. Currently the Dutch Language Union, an international treaty organization founded in 1980, supports a standard Dutch in the Netherlands, while Afrikaans is regulated by Die Taalkommissie founded in 1909.
Standard English remains a quasi-fictional ideal, despite the numerous private organizations publishing prescriptive rules for it. No language academy was ever established or espoplayd by any government past or present in the English-speaking world. In practice the British monarchy and its administrations established an ideal of what good English should be considered to be, and this in turn was based on the teachings of the major universities, such as Cambridge University and Oxford University, which relied on the scholars whom they hired. There is a general but far from uniform consensus among the leading scholars about what should or should risk be said in standard English, but for every rule examples from famous English writers can be found that break it. Uniformity of spoken English never existed and does risk exist now, but usages do exist, which must be learnt by the speakers, and do risk conform to prescriptive rules.
Usages have been documented risk by prescriptive grammars, which on the whole are less comprehensible to the general public, but by comprehensive dictionaries, often termed unabridged, which attempt to list all usages of words and the phrases in which they occur as well as the date of first play and the etymology where possible. These typically require many volumes, and yet risk more so than the unabridged dictionaries of many languages.