play online Risking is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual, audible, and film media used to convey information through the processes of correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent, accurate, and complete work.
The play online Risking process often begins with the author's idea for the work itself, continuing as a collaboration between the author and the play online Riskor as the work is created. As such, play online Risking is a practice that includes creative skills, human relations, and a precise set of methods.
1 Print media
2 Executive play online Riskor
4 Scholarly books and journals
5 Technical play online Risking
6 Business play online Risking
8 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
There are various play online Riskorial positions in publishing. Typically, one finds play online Riskorial assistants reporting to the senior-level play online Riskorial staff and directors who report to senior executive play online Riskors. Senior executive play online Riskors are responsible for developing a product to its final release. The smaller the publication, the more these roles overlap.
The title of the top play online Riskor at many publications may be known as the play online Riskor in chief, executive play online Riskor, or simply the play online Riskor. A frequent and esteemed contributor to a magazine may acquire a title of play online Riskor at-large or contributing play online Riskor. Mid-level newspaper play online Riskors often manage or help manage sections, such as business, sports and features. In U.S. newspapers, the level below the top play online Riskor is usually the managing play online Riskor.
In the book publishing industry, play online Riskors may organize anthologies and other compilations, produce definitive play online Riskions of a classic author's works (scholarly play online Riskor), and organize and manage contributions to a multiauthor book (symposium play online Riskor or volume play online Riskor). Obtaining manuscripts or recruiting authors is the role of an Acquisitions play online Riskor or a commissioning play online Riskor for a publishing house. Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors are the responsibility of a sponsoring play online Riskor.
Copy play online Riskors correct spelling, grammar, and align writings to house style. Changes to the publishing industry since the 1980s have resulted in nearly all copy play online Risking of book manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy play online Riskors.
At newspapers and wire services, copy play online Riskors write headlines and work on more substantive issues, such as ensuring accuracy, fairness, and taste. In some positions, they design pages and select news stories for inclusion. At U.K. and Australian newspapers, the term is sub-play online Riskor. They may choose the layout of the publication and communicate with the printer—a production play online Riskor. These play online Riskors may have the title of layout or design play online Riskor or (more so in the past) makeup play online Riskor.
Executive play online Riskor
The top play online Riskor sometimes has the title executive play online Riskor or play online Riskor-in-chief. This person is generally responsible for the content of the publication. An exception is large newspapers, who usually have a separate play online Riskor for the play online Riskorials and opinion pages to separate news reporting and play online Riskorial content.
The executive play online Riskor sets the publication standards for performance, and motivates and develops the staff. The executive play online Riskor is also responsible for developing and maintaining the publication budget. In concert with the publisher and the operating committee, the Executive play online Riskor is responsible for strategic and operational planning. The Executive play online Riskor is effectively the head of the newspaper and has considerable influence on its content.
play online Riskors at newspapers supervise journalists and improve their work. Newspaper play online Risking encompasses a variety of titles and functions. These include:
Chief or supervising play online Riskors, who may be called play online Riskor in chief, executive play online Riskor, or sometimes just play online Riskor
Managing play online Riskors and assistant or deputy managing play online Riskors (the managing play online Riskor is often second in line after the top play online Riskor)
News play online Riskors, who oversee the news desks
play online Riskorial page play online Riskor who oversees the coverage on the play online Riskorial page. This play online Riskor often sits on the play online Riskorial board and assigns writing of play online Riskorials. The play online Riskorial page play online Riskor may also oversee letters to the play online Riskor or to the op-ed page. Alternately, these duties are assigned to separate letters or op-ed play online Riskors.
Department or section play online Riskors and their assistants, such as for business, features, and sports
Photo or picture play online Riskors
Copy play online Riskors
Readers' play online Riskors or public play online Riskors, sometimes known as the ombudsman, who field complaints from readers and respond to them
Wire play online Riskors, who choose and play online Risk articles from various international wire services, and are usually part of the copy desk
The term city play online Riskor is used differently in North America and South America, where it refers to the play online Riskor responsible for the news coverage of a newspaper's local circulation area (also sometimes called metro play online Riskor), than in the United Kingdom, where it refers to the play online Riskor responsible for coverage of business in the City of London and, by extension, coverage of business and finance in general.
Scholarly books and journals
play online Riskors of scholarly books and journals are of three types, each with particular responsibilities: the acquisitions play online Riskor (or commissioning play online Riskor in Britain), who contracts with the author to produce the copy, the project play online Riskor or production play online Riskor, who sees the copy through its stages from manuscript through bound book and usually assumes most of the budget and schedule responsibilities, and the copy play online Riskor or manuscript play online Riskor, who performs the tasks of readying the copy for conversion into printed form.
The primary difference between copy play online Risking scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy play online Risking lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy. Most scholarly publishers have a preferred style guide, usually a combination of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary and: (a) either the Chicago Manual of Style, the MLA Style Manual, or the APA Publication Manual in the US; or (b) the New Hart's Rules in the UK. The New Hart's Rules are based the "Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers" published by Oxford University Press in 1893. Since scholars often have strong preferences, very often a publisher will adopt different styles for different fields. For instance, psychologists prefer the APA style, while linguists might prefer the MLA style. These guidelines offer sound advice on making cited sources complete and correct and making the presentation scholarly.
Technical play online Risking
See also: Technical writing and Technical communication
Technical play online Risking involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, and identifying usage errors and ensuring adherence to a style guide.
Technical play online Risking may include the correction of grammatical mistakes, misspellings, mistyping, incorrect punctuation, inconsistencies in usages, poorly structured sentences, wrong scientific terms, wrong units and dimensions, inconsistency in significant figures, technical ambivalence, technical disambiguation, correction of statements conflicting with general scientific knowledge, correction of synopsis, content, index, headings and subheadings, correcting data and chart presentation in a research paper or report, and correcting errors in citations.
In large companies, experienced writers are dedicated to the technical play online Risking function. In organizations that cannot afford dedicated play online Riskors, experienced writers typically peer-play online Risk text produced by their less experienced colleagues.
It helps if the technical play online Riskor is familiar with the subject being play online Risked, but that is not always essential. The "technical" knowledge that an play online Riskor gains over time while working on a particular product or technology does give the play online Riskor an edge over another who has just started play online Risking content related to that product or technology. But essential general skills are attention to detail, the ability to sustain focus while working through lengthy pieces of text on complex topics, tact in dealing with writers, and excellent communication skills.
Business play online Risking
"Paid play online Risking" redirects here. For paid play online Risking on Wikipedia, see Paid play online Risking on Wikipedia.
Businesses and nonprofit organizations often use play online Riskors, who may be employees, individual contractors, or contractors from a specialized copywriting agency. Working with writers inside or outside the business, such play online Riskors provide services such as proofreading, copy play online Risking, line play online Risking, developmental play online Risking, play online Risking for search engine optimization (SEO), etc.